Great Business Books

List of 9 Gems: Great Business Books:
Over time I created a list of 9 great business books. For each of these books I wrote book reviews that received a lot of helpful votes and got featured among the “Most Helpful Customer Reviews” on each book’s Amazon page. You can view the list along with my reviews here.

The Essential Drucker: The Best of Sixty Years of Peter Drucker’s Essential Writings on Management

The late Peter F. Drucker invented the discipline that we know as Management. This book is an excellent compilation of his best works, written over six decades and published in journals, magazines and over 30 books.
I am amazed at the breadth and depth of this compilation. It includes several topics (categorized in sections for Management, The Individual and Society). In the first few chapters Drucker defines management through its tasks and states that “there is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer” (page 20). In the other chapters you will learn Management by Objectives (MBO), the process of making effective decisions, the importance of focusing on contributions and results, get introduced to the “knowledge worker” (page 304), a term Drucker created in the 60s, and learn about the “post-capitalist society” with knowledge as the central resource (page 288). This book has five chapters on Innovation & Entrepreneurship. And more.
While there is a lot of wisdom in each chapter, I will share below my thoughts from 4 chapters that were originally published in “The Effective Executive” (1966):
In Chapter 13: Effectiveness must be Learned, Drucker explains the diferrence between efficiency and effectiveness – efficiency is doing things right; effectiveness is doing the right things. For manual work, efficiency was enough. In today’s world, the center of gravity has shifted from the manual worker to the “knowledge worker”. For knowledge work, effectiveness is more important than efficiency.
An executive is … a knowledge worker who is … responsible for contributions (decisions, actions) … that have significant impact on … performance and results of the whole organization (derived from Chapter 13).
In Chapter 14: Focus on Contribution, Drucker stresses the importance of focusing outward, on contributions and results; as opposed to downward, on efforts. He then discusses the four basic requirements of effective human relations – communication, teamwork, self-development and development of others.
In Chapter 16: Know Your Time, Drucker explains time-diagnosis with questions for the executive:
a. What would happen if this were not done at all?
b. Which activities could be done by somebody else just as well, if not better?
c. (ask others) What do I do that wastes your time without contributing to your effectiveness?
Drucker then explains the identification of time wasters caused by – a lack of system, overstaffing, bad organization structure and malfunction in information. He also states that “Time is the scarcest resource, and unless it is managed, nothing else can be managed”.
In Chapter 17: Effective Decisions, Drucker explains the decision process in five steps:
a. Determine whether the problem is generic or unique
b. Specify the objectives of the decision and the conditions it needs to satisfy
c. Determine the right solution that will satisfy the specifications and conditions
d. Convert the decision into action
e. Build a feedback process to compare results with expectations
He states that “No decision has been made unless carrying it out in specific steps has become someone’s work assignment and responsibility. Until then, there are only good intentions”. He then explains the importance of creating disagreement, rather than consensus. He states that disagreement provides alternatives and stimulates imagination and that “The first rule in decision making is that one does not make a decision unless there is disagreement”.
This book is an excellent introduction to management. As you may have guessed from the quotes, it contains many of the most famous Druckerisms. I recommend this book as a must read to every manager and anybody interested in management.

The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement

Eliyahu Goldratt’s “The Goal” is an entertaining novel and at the same time a thought provoking business book. The story is about a plant manager, Alex Rogo, whose plant and marriage are going downhill. He finds himself in the unenviable position of having ninety days in which to save his plant. A fortuitous meeting with an old acquaintance, Jonah, introduces him to the Theory of Constrains (TOC). He uses this new way of thinking to …
TOC postulates that for an organization to have an ongoing process of improvement, it needs to answer three fundamental questions:
1. What to change?
2. To what to change?
3. How to cause the change?
The goal is to make (more) money, which is done by the following:
1. Increase Throughput
2. Reduce Inventory
3. Reduce Operating Expense
Goldratt defines throughput (T) as the rate at which the system generates money through sales. He also defines inventory (I) as everything the system invests in that it intends to sell. Operating expense (OE) is defined as all the money the system spends in order to convert inventory into throughput.
The author does an excellent job explaining his concepts, especially how to work with constraints and bottlenecks (processes in a chain of processes, such that their limited capacity reduces the capacity of the whole chain). He makes the reader empathize with Alex Rogo and his family and team. Don’t be surprised if you find yourself cheering for Alex to succeed.
The importance and benefits of focusing on the activities that are constraints are clearly described with several examples in “The Goal”. One example from the book is the one in which Alex takes his son and a group of Boy Scouts out on a hiking expedition. Here Alex faces a constraint in the form of the slowest boy, Herbie. Alex gets to apply two of the principles Jonah talked to him about – “dependent events” (events in which the output of one event influences the input to another event) and “statistical fluctuations” (common cause variations in output quantity or quality). He realizes that in a chain of dependent processes, statistical fluctuations can occur at any step. These result in time lags between the processes that accumulate and grow in size further down the chain. This leads to the performance of the system becoming worse than the average capacity of the constraint.
It is interesting to note that TOC practitioners often refer to TOC concepts in terms of references from this book. For example, a constraint is often called a Herbie.
The Goldratt Institute (goldratt dot com) has illustrated TOC Analysis in the form of five steps used as a foundation upon which solutions are built:
1. Identify the constraint
2. Decide how to exploit the constraint
3. Subordinate and synchronize everything else to the above decisions
4. Elevate the performance of the constraint
5. If, in any of the above steps the constraint has shifted, go back to Step 1
Although this book is excellent in the context of Operations, the “Goal” to “make (more) money by…” is limited in its focus. It is concerned with the cost centers internal to a business. Business performance in today’s increasingly competitive market depends on a variety of factors that exist outside the business. These include competitors, external opportunities, customers and the non-customers. Executives need to focus on these in order to see the bigger picture.
This book is necessary reading at the best MBA programs. In addition to being a review, this write-up was intended to serve as a summary of the core concepts of this book and TOC. If you are reading this as part of your coursework, please feel free to share the link with your fellow students.

The Halo Effect: … and the Eight Other Business Delusions That Deceive Managers

I read “Good to Great” and “Built to Last” some years ago because they were bestsellers and had good reviews. Although I did enjoy reading them, a voice in my head kept asking questions regarding the reliability of the research and findings. After reading “The Halo Effect”, I was relieved and happy to learn that I am not the only person asking these questions.
The world of business is complicated, uncertain and unpredictable. A company’s performance depends upon a variety of factors beyond the actions of its managers. These include currency shifts, competitors’ actions, shifts in consumer preferences, technological advances, etc. The first delusion is the Halo Effect, the tendency to look at a company’s overall performance and make attributions about its culture, leadership, values, and more. Our thinking is prejudiced by financial performance. In good times, companies are praised and their success is attributed to a variety of internal factors. In bad times, companies are criticized and these factors, which may not have changed, are attributed for the failures. The reality is more complicated and dependent upon uncertain and unpredictable factors.
An interesting section of this book is the one on the delusion of absolute performance. Company performance is relative, not absolute. A company can improve and fall further behind its rivals at the same time. For instance, GM today produces cars with better quality and more features than in the past. But its loss in market share is owed to a myriad of factors, including Asian competitors.
This is an excellent book because it will make you THINK. Is an oil company great if its profits soared when oil prices went up? Can the formulas used by successful companies in the 80s or 90s be applied to guarantee success today? A professor once told me that to predict future performance by analyzing past data is like driving a car forward while looking at the rear view mirror. In the appendix of this book there are tables showing the performance of the companies studied in “In Search of Excellence” and “Built to Last”. It is interesting to note the difference in performance in the years before and after these studies.
The author, Phil Rosenzweig, is a professor at IMD in Switzerland and former Harvard Business School professor. He wrote this book to stimulate discussion and help managers become wiser – “more discerning, more appropriately skeptical, and less vulnerable to simplistic formulas and quick fix remedies.” In my case, this book has given me a new perspective on business books.
The following is a brief summary of the nine delusions:
1. Halo Effect: Tendency to look at a company’s overall performance and make attributions about its culture, leadership, values, and more.
2. Correlation and Causality: Two things may be correlated, but we may not know which one causes which.
3. Single Explanations: Many studies show that a particular factor leads to improved performance. But since many of these factors are highly correlated, the effect of each one is usually less than suggested.
4. Connecting the Winning Dots: If we pick a number of successful companies and search for what they have in common, we’ll never isolate the reasons for their success, because we have no way of comparing them with less successful companies.
5. Rigorous Research: If the data aren’t of good quality, the data size and research methodology don’t matter.
6. Lasting Success: Almost all high-performing companies regress over time. The promise of a blueprint for lasting success is attractive but unrealistic.
7. Absolute Performance: Company performance is relative, not absolute. A company can improve and fall further behind its rivals at the same time.
8. The Wrong End of the Stick: It may be true that successful companies often pursued highly focused strategies, but highly focused strategies do not necessarily lead to success.
9. Organizational Physics: Company performance doesn’t obey immutable laws of nature and can’t be predicted with the accuracy of science – despite our desire for certainty and order.
Overall, I found this to be an excellent book and recommend it to all managers.

First, Break All the Rules: What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently

This is a well researched book. The authors arrived at their conclusions after analyzing data collected by Gallup over 25 years – using an impressive sample size of 80 thousand managers and 1 million staff from 400 companies. Gallup has used its expertise in survey research to link employee engagement to business performance. The concepts are well explained and presented.
The essence of the findings lie in the 4 Keys of great managers and the 12 Questions that give organizations the information they need to attract, focus, and keep the most talented employees.
The 4 Keys of great managers:
1. Select for talent – the authors define talent as “recurring patterns of behavior” and state that great managers find the match between talents and roles.
2. Define the right outcomes – managers needs to turn talent into performance. This can be done by defining the right outcomes and letting people find their own route toward the outcomes.
3. Focus on strengths – managers need to concentrate on strengths and not on weaknesses.
4. Find the Right Fit – managers need to assign roles to employees that give the employees the greatest chance of success.
The 12 Questions make an excellent list of questions that will be helpful to organizations as well as to employees. The authors group the questions into various categories and explain the importance of each question and group.
I give this book 5 stars because the insights are practical and backed by empirical evidence, and the book is well presented. I was able to apply the concepts immediately. I read this book when I was assigned the role of a team lead. I was able to improve the efficiency of the team by assigning tasks to people based on their individual strengths.
This book has a lot of substance. I am sure I will be referring to it often to make the valuable insights a part of my management style. In addition, it does a good job explaining key business terms that people often take for granted, such as talent, skills, knowledge, etc.
I also like the fact that this book has proven some of Peter Drucker’s concepts with scientific research. Here are a couple of examples that are verbatim quotes from “The Essential Drucker” :
Chapter 9 : Picking People – The Basic rules: (page 130):
“… the person and the assignment need to fit each other.”,
“… effective executives do not start out by looking at weaknesses. You cannot build performances on weaknesses. You can build only on strengths”.
“First Break…” is an excellent book that I recommend as a must read to every manager and anybody interested in management.

12: The Elements of Great Managing

The 12 elements represent the aspects of work that are most powerful in explaining workers’ productive motivations on the job. They include job clarity, materials and equipment, recognition and praise… learning and growth opportunities.
These are my reasons for rating this book 5 stars:
1. The insights are backed by empirical evidence,
2. Although the approach is scientific, the book is easy to understand,
3. It incorporates international perspectives.
The authors illustrate the 12 Elements with examples from the US, Brazil, Germany, India and other countries. The insights are practical and backed by empirical evidence gathered from 10 million employee and manager interviews from 114 countries. In this book employee engagement has been linked to business performance. The authors have compared the top-quartile and bottom-quartile business units for the Elements, and have measured the overall difference between engaged and actively disengaged employees. Throughout the book you will read results that link these differences to a variety of business metrics – productivity, profitability, absenteeism, turnover, shrink (the retailers’ euphemism for theft), accidents, customer ratings, etc. I enjoyed the way in which the findings were presented. Each chapter starts with a situation where a company has problems related to an Element. The authors then present their research and findings. After that a “great” manager implements changes and saves the day.
This book is exceptionally well researched. In addition to research by Gallup, it includes references from the works of several other researchers and authors that stretch across time and disciplines; for example Economics (from Adam Smith to Steven Levitt), Psychology (from Abraham Maslow to Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi), Management (from Frederick Taylor to Jeffrey Pfeffer)… Movies (Office Space), TV (Seinfeld) and Cartoons (Dilbert). The book also includes discoveries from neuroscience and game theory.
A note on the important of empirical evidence:
Many managers prefer to manage by their gut feelings, or by whatever fad that consulting firms are selling. For them, “evidence” often means personal, N=1 experience, and not consistent demonstration of results across contexts and time. That’s part of the reason that they will continue to create the same problems that so many before them have made. Today, movements such as “evidence based management” are gaining popularity in academic and business circles. Several HR and Organizational Behavior professionals and professors (for instance Stanford’s Pfeffer and Sutton) are applying techniques from science, engineering and statistics to the discipline of management.
Overall, I found this to be an excellent book and recommend it to all managers. Should you be interested, please feel free to read my guides and other reviews of management books.

Stop Acting Rich: …And Start Living Like A Real Millionaire

I read Thomas Stanley’s The Millionaire Next Door three years ago and was thoroughly impressed by the insights and research. While reading it I wished the author had published a revised edition with updated numbers – the book was published in 1998. This book (Stop Acting Rich…) covers similar themes as the book I previously mentioned. However, it has updated numbers and includes insights gained from the financial crises of 2008-2009.
The central theme of this book is that there is a difference between those that are genuinely rich and those that act like they are rich. This book details the differences between these two groups of people – what they wear, drive, eat, drink, etc. These differences, presented throughout the book in the form of several tables and lists, are backed by empirical data that are drawn from the author’s extensive research on the affluent.
We live in a culture of hyperconsumerism. It is far easier to act rich than to become truly rich. All we have to do is to buy the luxury goods/services that we think the rich buy and we get the feeling that we are rich. But this kind of excessive consumerism is detrimental to our net worth. The author explains that most rich people become wealthy and stay that way by being frugal and by being investment oriented as opposed to consumption oriented. As for wealth and happiness he warns, “those who think that acting rich must be predicated on hyperconsumerism are likely to end up on the short side of both the wealth and happiness scales”.
Throughout the book many myths about the rich are dispelled. Their consumption habits are described and compared with those of the pretenders. What brands of shoes, suits, watches, etc do they wear? What wines and spirits do they consume? What motor vehicles do they drive? Where do they shop? And how much do they pay for the goods listed above? The insights are illuminating and thought provoking.
During the financial crisis of 2008-2009, many articles were published regarding the benefits of frugality and the dangers of excessive consumption. In many ways the root of this crisis (sometimes referred to as the Credit Crisis) was excessive borrowing and consumption. I share the author’s belief that as soon as the economy improves, people will resume their spendthrift ways. This is most unfortunate since it could lead to a repeat of the crisis we just experienced.
Bottom line – I highly recommend this book as the single best personal finance book I have read. You cannot save the whole of society from this disease of hyperconsumerism. But by educating yourself, you can simplify your lifestyle so that you can be truly rich as opposed to just acting like you are rich. 

The Effective Executive: The Definitive Guide to Getting the Right Things Done

“The Effective Executive” (1966) was the first book to define who an executive is and to explain the practices of effective executives. Today there are several in this genre. But this book was the first, as is the case with many of Drucker’s masterpieces.
Drucker starts the book by stating that this book is about managing oneself and that executives who do not manage themselves cannot possibly expect to manage other people.
Efficiency vs. Effectiveness:
“Efficiency is doing things right; effectiveness is doing the right things.”
For manual work, efficiency was enough. In today world, the center of gravity has shifted from the manual worker to the “knowledge worker” (a term Drucker coined in the 60s). For knowledge work, effectiveness is more important than efficiency.
Who is an executive?
Executive = a knowledge worker who is … responsible for contributions (decisions, actions) … that have significant impact on … performance and results of the whole organization (derived from pages 5 through 9).
Effective executives:
1. Manage time
2. Focus on contributions and results
3. Build on strengths
4. Set the right priorities
5. Make effective decisions
1. Manage time:
“Time is the scarcest resource, and unless it is managed, nothing else can be managed” (page 51).
Chapter 2, Know Thy Time, starts with a three-step process – recording, managing and consolidating time. Drucker then states the factors that make time a unique resource – the supply of time is inelastic, time is perishable and cannot be stored, time is irreplaceable (i.e. has no substitute), all work takes place in and uses up time.
Drucker then explains time-diagnosis with questions for the executive:
a. What would happen if this were not done at all?
b. Which activities could be done by somebody else just as well, if not better?
c. (ask others) What do I do that wastes your time without contributing to your effectiveness?
Drucker then explains the identification of time wasters caused by – lack of system, overstaffing, bad organization structure, malfunction in information. If you have spent time in meetings, you will surely be able to relate these concepts to your work. This chapter changed my perception of time as a resource.
2. Focus on contributions and results:
In chapter 3, What Can I Contribute?, Drucker stresses the importance of focusing outward, on contributions and results; as opposed to downward, on efforts. He proceeds to discussing the four basic requirements of effective human relations:
a. Communication
b. Teamwork
c. Self-development
d. Development of others
3. Build on strengths:
“In every area of effectiveness within an organization, one feeds the opportunities and starves the problems” (page 98).
In chapter 4, Making Strengths Productive, Drucker explains that effective executives build on strengths and make weaknesses irrelevant. Decades after this book was written, researchers from Gallup arrived at the same result, published in the bestseller “First Break All the Rules”; confirming that Drucker was right all along.
Drucker proceeds to outline four rules for staffing from strength:
a. Make sure the job is well designed
b. Make the job challenging to bring out strengths
c. Have an appraisal policy to measure performance
d. Put up with weaknesses – the exception is a weakness in character and integrity, which causes disqualification.
4. Set the right priorities:
Chapter 4, First Things First, deals with concentration. Drucker explains that effective executives set the right priorities and stick to them. They concentrate on the areas where superior performance will produce outstanding results. They also set posteriorities – tasks not to tackle. In the section “sloughing off yesterday”, Drucker states that effective executives ask “If we did not already do this, would we go into it now?” If the answer is no, the activity is dropped or curtailed. This concept is explained in more detail in Drucker’s book titled “Managing For Results” (1964) as purposeful abandonment in chapter 9. America’s best known CEO, GE’s Jack Welsh, followed this practice when he got rid of GE businesses that could not be number one or two in their industries.
5. Make effective decisions:
“No decision has been made unless carrying it out in specific steps has become someone’s work assignment and responsibility. Until then, there are only good intensions” (page 136).
In chapter 6, The Elements of Decision Making, Drucker explains his five step decision process:
a. Determine whether the problem is generic or unique
b. Specify the objectives of the decision and the conditions it needs to satisfy
c. Determine the right solution that will satisfy the specifications and conditions
d. Convert the decision into action
e. Build a feedback process to compare results with expectations
In chapter 7, Effective Decisions, Drucker states that a decision is a judgment, a choice between alternatives. He explains the importance of creating disagreement, rather than consensus. Drucker explains that disagreement provides alternatives and stimulates imagination.
“The first rule in decision making is that one does not make a decision unless there is disagreement” (page 148).
In the conclusion, Drucker states that effectiveness can and must be learned and that executive effectiveness is the best hope to make modern society productive economically and viable socially.
If you are an executive, you must read this book.

Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors

Michael E. Porter is a professor at Harvard Business School and a leading authority on Strategy and Competitiveness. He did his MBA and Ph.D from Harvard. He has served as an advisor to several business and government organizations. He was also a founder of the strategy and management consulting firm, Monitor Group.
Professor Porter is best known for his landmark books that defined the field of Strategy – Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (1980) and Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (1985). These books are must reads at the leading business schools.
I read Competitive Strategy (1980) for a Strategy course. It starts with a bang. On the very second page of the first chapter you will find the figure for the famous Five Forces Driving Industry Competition. While Porter did not intend this framework to be used for case interviews, in reality, this is a very important framework to know for the case interviews conducted by leading strategy and management consultancy firms. All top MBAs and anybody who has ever been hired by the best strategy and management consultancy firms knows this framework, and has probably read this book. The first chapter immediately proceeds to explaining each of the five forces:
1. Threat of new entrants
2. Intensity of rivalry among existing competitors
3. Pressure from substitute products
4. Bargaining power of buyers
5. Bargaining power of suppliers
While the first chapter alone is worth the cost of this book, I recommend it for the wisdom contained in the rest of the book. The chapters are organized under three parts (General Analytical Techniques, Generic Industry Environments, and Strategic Decisions). There are several thought provoking discussions on concepts such as A Framework for Competitor Analysis (Future goals, Assumptions, Current strategy, Capabilities), Market Signals and a Strategic Analysis of Vertical Integration.
This book is the single most important book on business strategy. It is a classic – like the management classics of Peter Drucker. As with every classic, the examples are old (not to be confused with outdated). But, the competition HP faced for electronic calculators in the 70s, it still faces for computers today. There have been several changes in the players, technology, industries, globalization, etc, but the foundation built by Porter’s masterpieces are still relevant today.
Porter’s second book Competitive Advantage (1985) introduced another important tool – The Value Chain. This analyzes primary activities (Inbound logistics, Operations, Outbound logistics, Marketing and Sales, Services) and support activities (Procurement, Technology development, Human resource management, Firm infrastructure) that firms must analyze to create value and competitive advantage.

Think and Grow Rich

If you asked me to recommend to you the single best “success” book I have ever read, my answer would be a very definite “Think and Grow Rich”.
First published in 1937, this is the end product of two decades of research conducted by Napoleon Hill. His research started when Andrew Carnegie (the steel tycoon who was then the richest man on earth) gave him the assignment of organizing a Philosophy of Personal Achievement. Hill, who was a poor journalist, armed with just an introductory letter from Carnegie, set out to interview over five hundred successful people including Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, John D. Rockefeller, George Eastman, William Wrigley Jr. and Charles M. Schwab. Hill then revealed the priceless wisdom of his research in the form of the thirteen steps to success (in Think and Grow Rich) and the seventeen principles of success (in courses and lectures he conducted).
The concepts taught by Napoleon Hill transformed my life. Some of these include developing a definite purpose, building a Positive Mental Attitude (PMA), channeling the power of the sub-conscious mind and dealing with adversity. Everything he wrote about or talked about is thought provoking. He was wise, humble and funny. His philosophy is universal; he did not mix it with religion. The riches he referred to were more than money, for the Philosophy of Personal Achievement can be applied to anything in life.
Hill was well ahead of his time. This book has a chapter dedicated to some of today’s most important issues – Specialized Knowledge, Decision Making, Imagination and Organized Planning (in which he deals with Leadership). He also has principles for Teamwork, Creative Vision, Health, etc.
This is a classic, and hence the examples are old (not to be confused with outdated). But they are as relevant today as they were in the early twentieth century. Here is an example from T&GR in the chapter on Desire:
On the morning after the Great Fire of Chicago (1871), a group of merchants on Chicago’s State Street went into a conference to decide whether to rebuild their stores or leave Chicago. All but one decided to leave. The merchant who decided to stay pointed a finger to the remains of his store and said “Gentlemen, on that very spot I will build the world’s greatest store, no matter how many times it may burn down.” His name was Marshall Field and his store still exists, and in Hill’s words is “a towering monument to that state of mind known as a burning desire.” I lived in Chicago from 2002 through 2004 and worked three blocks away from this impressive store on State Street. Sometimes I would visit it or stand outside it to derive inspiration and be reminded of the power of desire. It is amazing that Hill describes “burning desire” with a story based on the Chicago Fire.
There are thousands of self-help books out in the market and hundreds of self proclaimed “gurus” who have made a living by copying the wisdom in Hill’s books. As I went through some of those books I realized that there was not much in them that Hill had not already written about. I recommend quality over quantity. Instead of reading through many books, I recommend that you study the following works of Hill and internalize his wisdom:
1. The Think and Grow Rich Action Pack (1937) – I recommend the Action Pack edition,
2. Napoleon Hill’s Keys to Success: The 17 Principles of Personal Achievement – this is an excellent guide to his principles,
3. Your Right To Be Rich [Unabridged] – this consists of 12 hours of live lectures covering the 17 principles, that Hill conducted in Chicago in 1954.
By internalizing, I mean studying in depth – analyzing the ideas, making notes and summaries. I own more CDs by Hill, but I believe that these 3 items make the perfect study plan on the Philosophy of Personal Achievement.
 
 
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Thanks,
Avinash Sharma

#theyogicmanager #yogicmanagement

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